Machine Learning Algorithms

Machine learning and data mining are two new, growing fields of study. They involve trying to make sense of massive amounts of information. Usually, the process involves the analysis of different datasets with statistical models in order to gain a clear picture of relationships that may not appear obvious. Companies spend billions of dollars each year developing computers and new tools that perform these tasks. It is imperative that more and more workers find out how they work and how they may be applicable to the problems workers face on a daily basis. People cannot be intimidated by the complex statistical arrangements that make up data mining in artificial intelligence.


Every worker and every field has at least a small chance of running into these concepts sometimes. It is imperative to learn more about the data mining process and the algorithms behind artificial intelligence if one wants to stay ahead of global and technological trends. Here is a description of data mining and artificial intelligence along with some of the most important algorithms in used today.


What are Machine Learning Algorithms?


A machine learning algorithm is only a particular application of data mining. Data mining refers to the machine learning algorithms and other data analysis tools that make sense of big data. Big data is a broad term referring to large quantities of often quantitative data that cannot easily be processed and understood by human beings. Data mining tools use Concepts from statistics in order to make sense of that day.


They may help point to a relationship of regression, a general set of categories, or add distribution into two distinct groups. Some applications of data mining can increase in scale. Others are only applicable to a particular set of circumstances. Artificial intelligence refers to the practice of computers learning over time with their own tools. Many of the tools of data mining are the same as that artificial intelligence.


However, artificial intelligence has more potential applications then simply data mining. In addition, one can data mine without the use of an artificial intelligence program or even a computer. Big data can be derived from an individual just as easily as from a computer program. A computer or individual also does not need to learn over time in order to process data from a big dataset.


4 Groups of Machine Learning Algorithms


1. Supervised Learning


Supervised learning is an approach to a machine learning algorithm where the AI produces an output from an input based on a series of input-output examples. It is an approach to learning which is based on the initial information given by an operator. The future information may diverge considerably from the inputs and examples that they are based on. However, all of the algorithms and data output that proceeds forward can tie itself back to an effort to meet the first two examples.


This process begins with the operator choosing a series of examples that they want the artificial learning system to emulate. The operator then chooses the algorithm and the AI design that they want the system to follow. Design systems may include a series of rules and steps that analyze data on behalf of the artificial intelligence system. A computer processes that algorithm and creates an output that can be repeated and tested numerous times.


Over time, a machine learning algorithm software will hopefully learn from its mistakes and produce outcomes that more closely match the original provided by the user. Supervised learning can primarily be used to build datasets that resemble an original example. Simply put, supervised learning helps machines replicate learning for previously identified human situations.


2. Unsupervised Learning


Unsupervised learning involves machines that are not working out of a predetermined example set. They do not have a particular goal that researchers can use to track algorithm performance. Instead, these machines work according to a series of random variables and guidelines that lead it to a predictive outcome. The process begins in a similar way to other forms of a machine learning algorithm. A machine is given a particular dataset and algorithm to work with. However, the dataset is not constrained by a group of examples that the machine is supposed to work towards.


Unsupervised learning can be used in situations where the outcomes and example sets are not clear. They are particularly helpful for those situations where there are variables and datasets but no clear way to predict a favorable outcome. In those situations, those performing data mining with artificial intelligence need the data miner to do the work. They have not already answered a question and want an algorithm to match their achievements in a faster time with less effort. Instead, they are more beholden to the insights that come from the algorithm. Unsupervised learning allows the machine to do that work and learn in that environment.


3. Semi-supervised Learning


Semi-supervised learning is a middle ground between supervised and unsupervised learning. In this form of a machine learning algorithm, an artificial intelligence program works from a small base of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. This approach can be both successful and cost-effective. It is significantly cheaper than supervised learning. This reduced cost comes from the fact that labeling and associating data and example sets takes time and money.


However, it is also effective since the addition of unlabeled data helps to bring in more data and more attempts for the machine to learn. Semi-supervised learning is mainly used for either reduced costs or when an algorithm needs to understand both labeled and unlabeled information. This flexibility means it has applications in more kinds of situations.


4. Reinforcement Learning


In reinforcement learning, a computer program attempts to work through a large field of information and potential information. It does this by attempting to find concrete solutions to problems and then being evaluated on whether or not those solutions are correct. This setup makes this approach to machine learning inherently different from other forms of a machine learning algorithm. Reinforcement learning also does not have an input/output structure focused on approximation.


Instead, its binary answers are determined based on performance. The desire is to find specific solutions using large amounts of data and an applicable algorithm. This form of learning can be guided by a process called apprenticeship learning. In apprenticeship learning, a series of expert actions occur and the artificial learning software attempts to match them.


The two major uses of reinforcement learning are exploration and exploitation. Exploration involves attempting to find new solutions and information using an existing data send. Exploitation attempts to exploit information that an individual or computer already has in an attempt to learn more and spot relevant trends and regressions. Reinforcement learning primarily consists of attempting to solve the problems of other forms of learning through a different approach and a different structure.


10 Types of Machine Learning Algorithms


1. Apriori


Apriori is an algorithm used to analyze datasets from a number of different angles. It identifies the items in a dataset and then analyzes those items for patterns and attributes. This algorithm then looks at the frequent items in a set and determines that frequency as the set grows in size. This approach means that the datasets analyzed by this algorithm can be scaled indefinitely. At a certain point, identifying the frequency of particular items means that Apriori can detect trends and developments over a period of growth.


The algorithm counts datasets efficiently using a Hash tree and processes them almost as quickly. Apriori can be used to develop association rules over a broad swath of data. Association rules help make sense of data and how it can be developed as a dataset is added to. With association rules, data can be easily managed and manipulated. Future decisions and learning after the initial analysis allows datasets analyzed by this algorithm to be understood and studied more easily. A machine learning algorithm can also easily be facilitated with these rules. Apriori helps machines make sense of data and churn through algorithms at a breakneck pace. More functions and equations to solve mean more opportunities for the machine learning algorithm process to be perfected over time.


2. Artificial Neural Network


Artificial neural networks are AI systems built to mimic the learning process of the human brain. In the brain, different nodes take on different functions that work together as quickly as possible. A similar situation exists for the development of artificial neural networks. They utilize a series of functions on numerous nodes. The nodes may be separate servers or specific parts of a computer. Each node is based on a different function or a different series of processes. The nodes are weighted in a particular way at the beginning of the design.


Once information starts to be processed, the inputs flow through the nodes’ algorithms and are rendered as output. The machine learning algorithm software receives reports on the success or failure of its outputs. It then changes the nodes and the weights on each node in order to change the performance of the network.


Artificial neural network algorithm can be used as a simple architecture for AI algorithm processing. They provide more flexibility and an easier metric of change than other approaches to a machine learning algorithm. Artificial neural networks also work faster than other approaches to artificial intelligence. In addition, they can be used for a wide range of artificial intelligence needs beyond data mining and big data analysis.


3. Decision Trees


Decision trees are one of the most simple forms of categorization and classification possible. They are understood as flowcharts that work by decision rules. A decision rule documents the different branches that may occur from the original nodes. Many people can understand these decision trees for small numbers and values on a sheet of paper. However, artificial intelligence and computers can process thousands or millions of nodes on a decision tree per minute.

Decision trees are a helpful part of data analysis. They can be used to provide two or more possible outcomes for a single decision. A thousand-step process can be distilled and then acted upon by a computer engaged in a machine learning algorithm. This process can be shortened to a handful of decision trees that can be interpreted on an individual screen.


As a result, complex analytical properties can be easily displayed and understood by an operator who can then tweak and change the system to gain more optimal results. The decision tree is significantly easier to understand and follow than some forms of regression analysis and categorization study. As a result, it can be used much more easily than k-means clustering by a wider range of computers and artificial intelligence programs.


4. K-Means Clustering


The k-means clustering algorithm is a form of cluster analysis for large groups of data. It is more complicated than K-nearest neighbors KNN and is a niche need for certain data analyses. The process requires advanced statistical models and a large volume of information. Instead of predicting data, k-means clustering involves categorizing data that already exists. The “means” aspect involves grouping together pieces of data with similar means according to predetermined criteria.


These clusters are full of n observations which made up the original bulk of the data. K-means clustering is primarily used to make sense out of a massive volume of data that may not seem related. There are no two simple categories or definite example sets that can be used to track the eventual performance of the data in question. The data is parsed out through different categories and then k-means clustering attaches data to those categories. It can also be used to categorize and organize incoming data. A machine learning algorithm occurs when the data output can be tweaked and weighted differently in order to craft different clusters.


5. K-nearest Neighbors (KNN)


K-nearest neighbors KNN is a process of data mining with artificial intelligence which is often confused with k-means clustering. The confusion usually relies on the interactions with the k variable. It is a simpler process and has more possible applications than k-means clustering, however. KNN is an algorithm where input is evaluated based on how close it is to the value of k. K is usually a small number. When used for categorization, KNN categorized and classifies based on how close other data inputs come to k in their output. This process helps to simplify large amounts of data and place similar data together in particular categories.


When used for regression, the output of a k-nearest neighbor equation is a value that can plot a line of all the averages that are the nearest neighbors of k. The main uses for this algorithm, categorization, and regression, help to classify and simplify data. Categorization allows for data to be placed in specific areas based on assumed and accepted attributes. This process results in a dataset which can be quickly searched and interpreted based on the categories that an individual who is data mining or relying on artificial intelligence is familiar with. Regression allows the machine learning algorithm software to identify trends and show the development of data over some sort of range.


6. Linear Regression


Linear regression is a statistics tool used to determine the relationship between numerous points of data. It is necessary when a human or machine needs a simple formula for understanding the trend of a large dataset. Linear regression works by plugging a number of data points into an equation. When on a chart, the data points may seem disparate and disjointed with numerous outliers.


Linear regression brings those disparate data points together with a single line. This line points to development over the increase and decrease of a particular variable. Regression is the most basic way to visualize a trend. Spotting trend lines can help with understanding relationships with different data points. It can also be used to note and detect a possible prediction of future development.


7. Logistic Regression


Logistic regression is a predictive model used to anticipate an outcome using two or more input variables. It is different from other forms of regression because it is not referring to the way in which data points relate to a particular line. Instead, it is much more interested in predictive modeling past a direct relationship. For binomial logistic regression, a set of data is analyzed according to the probability of one possible outcome or the other. The function absorbs input and produces output displayed on a chart with a solid line or curve.


Curves are possible because the regression is logistic rather than linear. This form of regression is useful for predictive modeling using two or more possible outcomes. It can analyze a large ream of data and use the output of that data to point to one or more outcomes over a set period of time. Machine learning algorithm tools can change the weights of a logistic regression equation depending on which outcome occurs.


8. Naive Bayes Classifier


A Naive Bayes Classifier is a way of constructing different classes in order to better process and categorize datasets. It is based on the principle that values of features being considered are independent from one another. This principle underlies artificial intelligence programs which analyze large data sets and then set them into different classes based on predetermined attributes.


A family of algorithms process all kinds of data and place them into numerous categories. Unlike some forms of data analysis, the Naive Bayes Classifier can be used at any scale to analyze large reams of data and place that data into identifiable categories. This form of a classifier is useful for matching data to predetermined examples. Such a connection can prove useful as the data mining process continues over time and artificial intelligence learns and grows more sophisticated.


9. Random Forests


Random forests are tools used by computers performing a machine learning algorithm to discover new trends and regression patterns. Computers implement an algorithm and then position the output to branch off into different trees. This program then attempts to find the mode of the classes created by the process. The result is a greater understanding of the relationship between the original datasets. Classes and trees help the random forest to distinguish between the original dataset and the synthetic dataset provided by the AI process.


10. Support Vector Machine


A support vector machine is a way of analyzing and classifying data using artificial intelligence. The process begins by organizing a group of data points into example sets. Those example sets are divided into two different categories. An example-based learning program is then implemented which classifies all resulting data into those two original datasets. The limitation of two different alternatives helps make sense of data that may have nothing else in common. A support vector machine can be a good first step for a data mining or artificial intelligence program that is trying to interpret and understand a large amount of data. It may be supplemented by future research and more sets of algorithms.


Thoughts on Machine Learning Algorithms


Many of these algorithms and algorithm groups appear similar. They are all trying to categorize, explain, and predict data. They also use a similar series of Tools and skills in order to make sense of data. Exploitation and exploration are at the heart of all data mining and artificial intelligence connected to data mining. 


Linear regression and logistic regression seem like perfectly capable approaches. However, all of the algorithms mentioned above have their relevant uses.

Both data mining and artificial intelligence as ways of analyzing and understanding data will only continue to grow as computers become more powerful and algorithms gain more applications. Therefore, more and more people will have to have a better understanding of machine learning and data mining algorithms in order to survive and prosper in the 21st-century economy.


R-ALGO Engineering Big Data provides articles on Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms, Big Data, Data Science, and Machine Learning. Also, R-ALGO Engineering Big Data provides R Tutorials on how to implement Machine Learning Algorithms with provided datasets.

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